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Role of AI in Chandrayaan-3 Mission Success

Chandrayaan 3
Image Credits- ISRO
Mission nameChandrayaan-3
Launch dateJuly 14, 2023
Launch vehicleGSLV Mark 3
Launch siteSatish Dhawan Space Center, Sriharikota, India
OrbitLunar orbit

About Chandrayaan-3

Chandrayaan-3 is a planned third lunar exploration mission by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). It will consist of a lander and a rover similar to Chandrayaan-2, but would not have an orbiter. Its propulsion module will behave like a communication relay satellite. The propulsion module will carry the lander and rover configuration until the spacecraft is in a 100 km lunar orbit.

The launch of Chandrayaan-3 has been scheduled for July 14, 2023, at 2:35 pm IST. The mission will be launched by a GSLV Mark 3 heavy lift launch vehicle from Satish Dhawan Space Center in Sriharikota, India.

Chandrayaan-3 is a follow-on mission to Chandrayaan-2, which was launched in 2019. Chandrayaan-2 was a successful mission, but the lander Vikram failed to land safely on the Moon. Chandrayaan-3 is designed to learn from the mistakes of Chandrayaan-2 and to successfully land a lander and rover on the Moon.

The main objectives of Chandrayaan-3 are to:

  • Demonstrate end-to-end capability in safe landing and roving on the lunar surface.
  • Study the lunar surface and its composition.
  • Search for water ice in the lunar polar regions.
  • Investigate the evolution of the Moon.

Chandrayaan-3 is an important mission for India, as it will demonstrate the country’s capabilities in space exploration. The mission is also expected to boost the Indian economy, as it will create jobs and open up commercial opportunities in the space sector.

Chandrayaan 3
Image Credits- ISRO

Examples of how AI is being used in Chandrayaan-3:

  • The lander’s AI algorithm will use data from the lander’s sensors to calculate the best landing spot and to control the lander’s descent. The algorithm will take into account factors such as the lunar terrain, the lander’s weight, and the amount of fuel remaining.
  • The rover’s AI algorithm will use data from the rover’s sensors to map out the terrain and to plan the rover’s route. The algorithm will also be used to identify obstacles and to avoid them.
  • The AI that will be used to analyze scientific data will be trained on a large dataset of images and other data that has been collected by previous lunar missions. The AI will be able to identify patterns in the data that would be difficult or impossible for humans to see.


Chandrayaan-3 is a follow-on mission to Chandrayaan-2, focused on demonstrating end-to-end capabilities for safe landing and roving on the lunar surface.

About Lander

The Lander payloads of Chandrayaan-3 include:

  1. Chandra’s Surface Thermophysical Experiment (ChaSTE): This payload is designed to measure the thermal conductivity and temperature on the lunar surface.
  2. Instrument for Lunar Seismic Activity (ILSA): ILSA is intended for measuring the seismic activity around the landing site on the moon.
  3. Langmuir Probe (LP): The LP payload aims to estimate the plasma density and its variations.
  4. LASER Retroreflector Array (LRA): It is a passive experiment to understand the dynamics of Moon system.

In addition, a passive Laser Retroreflector Array from NASA will be accommodated for lunar laser ranging studies.

About Rover

The Rover payloads of Chandrayaan-3 include:

  1. Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS): APXS is used to derive the elemental composition in the vicinity of the landing site on the lunar surface.
  2. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscope (LIBS): LIBS is another payload that helps in deriving the elemental composition of the lunar surface.

Objectives of Chandrayaan-3

The mission objectives of Chandrayaan-3 are as follows:

  1. To demonstrate safe and soft landing on the lunar surface.
  2. To demonstrate the roving capability of the Rover on the moon.
  3. To conduct in-situ scientific experiments.

To achieve these objectives, Chandrayaan-3 incorporates various advanced technologies in its Lander module, such as altimeters, velocimeters, inertial measurement systems, propulsion systems, navigation and guidance systems, hazard detection and avoidance systems, and a landing leg mechanism.

Several tests have been planned and carried out successfully on Earth to demonstrate the performance of these advanced technologies in conditions simulating lunar environments. These tests include integrated cold tests and integrated hot tests, which involve the demonstration of sensor and navigation performance using a helicopter and closed-loop performance tests with sensors, actuators, and navigation systems using a tower crane. Furthermore, the performance of the Lander leg mechanism has been tested on a lunar simulant test bed to simulate different touchdown conditions.

Image Credits- ISRO

Role of AI in Chandrayaan-3

Chandrayaan-3 will use artificial intelligence (AI) in a few different ways.

  1. To help with the landing- AI will be used to help the lander navigate to the landing site and to control the landing process. This will help to ensure that the lander lands safely and accurately.
  2. To control the rover- AI will be used to control the rover’s movements and to help it avoid obstacles. This will allow the rover to explore the lunar surface more effectively.
  3. To analyze scientific data- AI will be used to analyze the scientific data that is collected by the lander and the rover. This will help scientists to better understand the moon’s composition and its history.

The use of AI in Chandrayaan-3 is a significant step forward for space exploration. AI can help to make space missions safer, more efficient, and more productive. The success of Chandrayaan-3 will help to pave the way for future space missions that use AI.

Source: https://www.isro.gov.in/Chandrayaan3_New.html

Chandrayaan-3: AI’s Big Role in India’s Moon Victory

India’s remarkable achievement of landing Chandrayaan-3 on the moon’s surface was a moment of pride for the nation. This feat was the result of meticulous planning, cutting-edge technology, and a significant role played by Artificial Intelligence (AI), which was trained by a dedicated team at ISRO. It was a team effort – the brilliant AI, the dedicated team at ISRO, and the lessons learned from past missions – that made Chandrayaan-3’s landing a historical achievement.

The journey of Chandrayaan-3 to the moon was made possible through the collaborative efforts of scientists, engineers, and the AI software itself. ISRO harnessed the power of AI, which essentially means teaching computers to think and make decisions like humans, to guide the spacecraft in its crucial moments.

Chandrayaan-3 Moon Landing progress
How Artificial Intelligence Helped India Make History by Landing on the Moon
Chandrayaan-3 safely reached the moon with the help of AI.

How Artificial Intelligence Helped India Make History by Landing Chandrayaan-3 on the Moon

India’s space agency, ISRO, used Artificial Intelligence or AI to carefully guide the Chandrayaan-3 spaceship down to the moon’s surface.

The AI that guided Chandrayaan-3 was carefully taught and guided by a skilled team at ISRO, India’s space agency. This AI was not just a small helper – it played a huge part in the mission’s success.

ISRO used AI in the launch of Chandrayaan-3. The main role of AI in Chandrayaan-3‘s landing was when it was getting closer to the moon’s surface. AI will also assist ISRO in studying the information gathered by the Pragyan Rover, which was on Chandrayaan-3.

On Wednesday, India achieved a remarkable feat by becoming the first country to reach the southern part of the moon. This happened because the ambitious Chandrayaan-3 spaceship successfully landed on the moon, just as planned. The spaceship took about 15 minutes to land, and the Vikram Lander touched down on the moon’s surface. This accomplishment showcased the use of various advanced technologies, but AI played a very important role, especially during the early hours of the landing. AI controlled how the lander descended, which is a significant achievement in this field.

The lander started its descent at 5:45 pm on August 23, a Wednesday. AI software that used instruments like velocimeters and altimeters was in charge, using special tools to figure out how fast the lander was moving and where it was above the moon’s surface. Cameras on the spaceship and the lander itself helped the AI program spot suitable places for landing. These cameras were known as the Lander Position Detection Camera (LPDC) and the Lander Hazard Detection & Avoidance Camera (LHDAC).


As part of the landing process, the Vikram Lander needed to shift its position from lying flat to standing up straight. This was a complex step, and according to the head of ISRO, S Somnath, it was one of the trickiest parts of the landing process. India’s previous moon mission, Chandrayaan-2, had encountered some issues, which is why the space agency decided to use AI to make sure the change in position went smoothly. A team of experts trained the AI software by running various simulations, allowing it to correctly position the Vikram Lander from horizontal to vertical in the final stages of the descent. Using the Lander Horizontal Velocity Camera (LHVC), AI successfully rotated the lander by 90 degrees.

The successful deployment of Chandrayaan-3’s Pragyan Rover, which collected valuable data from the lunar surface, was another remarkable outcome of the AI’s contribution. The AI-assisted analysis of this data promises to provide insights into the moon’s geology and composition, contributing to our understanding of the lunar environment.

So, in the end, it was a team effort – the brilliant AI, the dedicated team at ISRO, and the lessons learned from past missions – that made Chandrayaan-3’s landing a historical achievement.

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Steve Rick
Steve Rick

Steve Rick is an AI researcher and author. He specializes in natural language processing(NLP). He published articles on the transformative power of AI.